Forensic Psychological Evaluation | Consultation | Expert Testimony

 

In addition to running her forensic practice, Dr. Zapf is actively involved in the continuing professional education and training of mental health and legal professionals on various issues related to forensic evaluation and expert testimony, both nationally and internationally. In addition, Dr. Zapf is an active and productive researcher and author, having published 9 books and manuals and over 85 journal articles, chapters, and reports.

Representative Publications

Books

Pirelli, G., Beattey, R., & Zapf, P. A. (2016). Ethical practice of forensic psychology: A casebook. NY: Oxford.

Cutler, B., & Zapf, P. A. (2015). APA Handbook of forensic psychology. Washington, DC: APA.

Roesch, R., Zapf, P. A., Hart, S. D., & Connelly, D. (2014). Forensic psychology and the Canadian legal system. Mississauga, ON: Wiley.

Roesch, R. & Zapf, P. A. (2012). Forensic assessments in criminal and civil law: A handbook for lawyers. NY: Oxford.

Roesch, R., Zapf, P. A., & Hart, S. D. (2010). Forensic psychology and law. Hoboken, NJ: Wiley.

Zapf, P. A., & Roesch, R. (2009). Best practices in forensic mental health assessment: Evaluation of competence to stand trial. New York, NY: Oxford.

Forensic Assessment Instruments

Zapf, P. A. (2006). Suicide Assessment Manual for Inmates (SAMI). Burnaby, BC: Mental Health, Law, and Policy Institute, Simon Fraser University.

Roesch, R., Zapf, P. A., & Eaves, D. (2006). Fitness Interview Test: A structured interview for assessing competency to stand trial. Sarasota, FL: Professional Resource Press.

Roesch, R., Zapf, P. A., Eaves, D., & Webster, C.D. (1998). The Fitness Interview Test (Revised edition). Burnaby, BC: Mental Health, Law, and Policy Institute, Simon Fraser University.

Peer-Reviewed Journal Articles

Kukucka, J., Kassin, S. M., Zapf, P. A., & Dror, I. E. (in press). Cognitive bias and blindness: A global survey of forensic science examiners. Journal of Applied Research in Memory and Cognition.

Zapf, P. A., Kukucka, J., Kassin, S. M., & Dror, I. E. (in press). Cognitive bias in forensic mental health assessment: Evaluator beliefs about its nature and scope. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law.

Zapf, P. A., & Dror, I. E. (2017). Understanding and mitigating bias in forensic evaluation: Lessons from forensic science. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health. doi.org/10.1080/14999013.2017.1317302

Brown, J., Haun, J., Zapf, P. A., & Brown, N. N. (2017). Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder (FASD) and Competency to Stand Trial (CST): Suggestions for a ‘best practices’ approach to forensic evaluation. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry. doi.org/10.1016/j.ijlp.2017.04.002

Brown, J., Haun, J. Brown, N. N., & Zapf, P. A. (2016). Deleterious effects of Fetal Alcohol Spectrum Disorder on Competency to Stand Trial. The Journal of Special Populations, 1, 1-7.

Beltrani, A., Zapf, P. A., & Brown J., (2015). Competency to stand trial: What forensic psychologists need to know. Forensic Scholars Today, 1(2), 1-4

Zottoli, T. M., Daftary-Kapur, T., & Zapf, P. A. (2015). We don’t always mean what we say: Attitudes towards statutory exclusion of juvenile offenders from juvenile court jurisdiction. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 15, 423-448.

Pirelli, G., Zapf, P. A., & Gottdiener, W. H. (2011). Competency to stand trial research: Guidelines and future directions. Journal of Forensic Psychiatry and Psychology, 22, 340-370.

Ryba, N. L., & Zapf, P. A. (2011). The influence of psychiatric symptoms and cognitive abilities on competence-related abilities. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 10, 29-40.

Zapf, P. A., & Roesch, R. (2011). Future directions in the restoration of competence to stand trial. Current Directions in Psychological Science, 20, 43-47.

Pirelli, G., Gottdiener, W. H., & Zapf, P. A. (2011). A meta-analytic review of comparative competency to stand trial research. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 17, 1-53.

Rosenfeld, B., Green. D., Pivovarova, E., Dole, T., & Zapf, P. A. (2010). What to do with contradictory data? Approaches to the integration of multiple malingering measures. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 9, 63-73.

Pivovarova, E., Rosenfeld, R., Dole, T., Green, D., & Zapf, P. A. (2009). Are measures of cognitive effort and motivation useful in differentiating feigned from genuine psychiatric symptoms? International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 8, 271-278.

Zapf, P. A. (2009). Elucidating the contours of competency for execution: The implications of Ford and Panetti for the assessment of CFE. Journal of Psychiatry and Law, 37, 269-307.

Cooper, V. G., & Zapf, P. A. (2008). Psychiatric patients’ comprehension of Miranda rights. Law and Human Behavior, 32, 390-405.

Murrie, D.C., Boccaccini, M.T., Zapf, P.A., Warren, J.I., & Henderson, C.E. (2008). Clinician variation in findings of competence to stand trial. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 14, 177-193.

Pirelli, G., & Zapf, P. A. (2008). An investigation of psychologists’ practices and attitudes toward participation in capital evaluations. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 8, 39-66.

Green, D., Rosenfeld, B., Dole, T., Pivarova, E., & Zapf, P. A. (2008). Validation of an abbreviated version of the Structured Interview of Reported Symptoms across outpatient psychiatric and community settings. Law and Human Behavior, 32, 177-186.

Jacobs, M. S., Ryba, N. L., & Zapf. P. A. (2008). Competence-related abilities and psychiatric symptoms:
An analysis of the underlying structure and correlates of the MacCAT-CA and the BPRS. Law and Human Behavior, 32, 64-77.

Viljoen, J. L., Zapf, P. A., & Roesch, R. (2007). Adjudicative competence and comprehension of Miranda rights in adolescent defendants: A comparison of legal standards. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 25, 1-19.

Brannen, D. N., Salekin, R. T., Zapf, P. A., Salekin, K. L., Kubak, F. A., & DeCoster, J. (2006). Transfer to adult courts: A national study of how juvenile court judges weigh pertinent Kent criteria? Psychology, Public, Policy, and Law, 12, 332-355.

Kahn, R., Zapf, P. A., & Cooper, V. G. (2006). Readability of Miranda warnings and waivers: Implications for evaluating Miranda comprehension. Law and Psychology Review, 30, 119-142.

Ackerson, K. S., Brodsky, S. L., & Zapf, P. A. (2005). Judges’ and psychologists’ assessments of legal and clinical factors in competence for execution. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 11, 164-193.

Brodsky, S. L. Zapf, P. A., & Boccaccini, M. T. (2005). Competency for execution assessments: Ethical continuities and professional tasks. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 5, 65-74.

Zapf, P. A., & Roesch, R. (2005). An investigation of the construct of competence: A comparison of the FIT, the MacCAT-CA, and the MacCAT-T. Law and Human Behavior, 29, 229-252.

Zapf, P. A., Skeem, J. L., & Golding, S. L. (2005). Factor structure and validity of the MacArthur Competence Assessment Tool—Criminal Adjudication. Psychological Assessment, 17, 433-445.

Cooper, V. G., McLearen, A. M., & Zapf, P. A. (2004). Dispositional decisions with the mentally ill: Police perceptions and characteristics. Police Quarterly, 7, 295-310.

Cox, M. L. & Zapf, P. A. (2004). An investigation of discrepancies between mental health professionals and the courts in decisions about competency. Law and Psychology Review, 28, 109-132.

Zapf, P. A., Hubbard, K. L., Cooper, V. G., Wheeles, M. C., & Ronan, K. A. (2004). Have the courts abdicated their responsibility for determination of competency to stand trial to clinicians? Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 4, 27-44.

Cooper, V. G, & Zapf, P. A. (2003). Predictor variables in competency to stand trial decisions. Law and Human Behavior, 27, 423-436.

Holloway, K. S., Brodsky, S. L., Boccaccini, M. T., & Zapf, P. A. (2003). Irrational and rational understandings of death: Issues of malingering and disordered thinking about death. American Journal of Forensic Psychology, 21, 65-77.

Hubbard, K. L., & Zapf, P. A. (2003). The role of demographic, criminal, and psychiatric variables in examiners’ predictions of restorability to competency to stand trial. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 2, 145-155.

Hubbard, K. L., Zapf, P. A., & Ronan, K. A. (2003). Competency restoration: An examination of the differences between defendants predicted restorable and not restorable to competency. Law and Human Behavior, 27, 127-139.

Ryba, N. L., Cooper, V. G., & Zapf, P. A. (2003). Juvenile competence to stand trial evaluations: A survey of current practices and test usage among psychologists. Professional Psychology: Research and Practice, 34, 499-507.

Ryba, N. L., Cooper, V. G., & Zapf, P. A. (2003). Assessment of maturity in juvenile competency to stand trial evaluations: A survey of practitioners. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 3, 23-45.

Viljoen, J. L., Roesch, R., Ogloff, J. R. P., & Zapf, P. A. (2003). The role of Canadian psychologists in conducting fitness and criminal responsibility evaluations. Canadian Psychology, 44, 369-381.

Viljoen, J. L., Zapf, P. A., & Roesch, R. (2003). Diagnosis, current psychiatric symptoms, and the ability to stand trial. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 3, 23-37.

Zapf, P. A., Boccaccini, M. T., & Brodsky, S. L. (2003). Assessment of competency for execution: Professional guidelines and an evaluation checklist. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 21, 103-120.

Zapf, P. A., & Viljoen, J. L. (2003). Issues and considerations regarding the use of assessment instruments in the evaluation of competency to stand trial. Behavioral Sciences and the Law, 21, 351-367.

Boccaccini, M. T., Zapf, P. A., & Brodsky, S. (2002). Psychiatric patients’ competency to collude with hospital police in “sting” operations: A case report and practice implications. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 1, 93-99.

Viljoen, J. L., Roesch, R., & Zapf, P. A. (2002). Interrater reliability of the Fitness Interview Test across four professional groups. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 47, 945-952.

Viljoen, J. L., Roesch, R., & Zapf, P. A. (2002). An examination of the relationship between competency to stand trial, competency to waive interrogation rights, and psychopathology. Law and Human Behavior, 26, 481-506.

Viljoen, J. L., & Zapf, P. A. (2002). Fitness to stand trial evaluations: A comparison of referred and non-referred defendants. International Journal of Forensic Mental Health, 1, 127-138.

Brodsky, S. L., Zapf, P. A., & Boccaccini, M. (2001). The last competency: An examination of legal, ethical, and professional ambiguities regarding evaluations of competence for execution. Journal of Forensic Psychology Practice, 1, 1-25.

Zapf, P. A., & Roesch, R. (2001). A comparison of the MacCAT-CA and the FIT for making determinations of competency to stand trial. International Journal of Law and Psychiatry, 24, 81-92.

Zapf, P. A., Roesch, R., & Viljoen, J. L. (2001) Assessing fitness to stand trial: The utility of the Fitness Interview Test (revised edition). Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 46, 426-432.

Zapf, P. A., & Roesch, R. (2000). Mental competency evaluations: Guidelines for judges and attorneys. Court Review, 37, 28-35.

Zapf, P. A., & Roesch, R. (1998). Fitness to stand trial: Characteristics of fitness remands since the 1992 Criminal Code amendments. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 43, 287-293.

Roesch, R., Ogloff, J. R. P., Hart, S. D., Dempster, R. J., Zapf, P. A., & Whittemore, K. E. (1997). The impact of Canadian criminal code changes on assessments of fitness to stand trial and criminal responsibility. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 42, 509-514.

Zapf, P. A., & Roesch, R. (1997). Assessing fitness to stand trial: A comparison of institution-based evaluations and a brief screening interview. Canadian Journal of Community Mental Health, 16, 53-66.

Zapf, P. A., & Roesch, R. (1997). Alternatives to inpatient evaluations of fitness to stand trial. Analise Psicologica, 15, 419-424.

Roesch, R., Hart, S. D., & Zapf, P. A. (1996). Conceptualizing and assessing competency to stand trial: Implications and applications of the MacArthur Treatment Competence Model. Psychology, Public Policy, and Law, 2, 96-113.

Zapf, P. A., Roesch, R., & Hart, S. D. (1996). An examination of the relationship of homelessness to mental disorder, criminal behavior, and health care in a pretrial jail population. Canadian Journal of Psychiatry, 41, 435-440.

Book Chapters

Brown, J., Haun, J., Zapf, P. A., & Aiken, T. (in press). FASD and competency to stand trial: An exploratory discussion. In E. Jonsson, I. Binnie, & S. Clarren (Eds.), Ethical and legal perspectives in fetal alcohol spectrum disorders: Foundational issues. Edmonton, AB: Institute of Health Economics.

Brown, J., Zapf, P. A., Novotny, P., Wartnik, A. P., & Haun, J. (in press). Offenders with co-occurring disorders. In K. D. Dodson (Ed.), Routledge handbook on offenders with special needs. New York: Taylor & Francis.

Reed, A., & Zapf, P. A. (in press). Criminal forensic assessment. In R. Roesch & A. N. Cook (Eds.), Handbook of forensic mental health services. New York: Taylor & Francis/Routledge.

Zapf, P. A. (2016). Competency for execution. In R. L. Jackson & R. Roesch (Eds.), Learning forensic assessment (2nd ed.). New York: Routledge.

Zapf, P. A., Gagnon, N. C., Cox, D. N., & Roesch, R. (2016). Psychological perspectives on criminality. In R. Linden (Ed.), Criminology: A Canadian perspective (8th ed., pp. 248-279). Toronto, ON: Nelson Thompson Learning.

Zapf, P. A., & Pirelli, G. (2015). Research methods with violent offenders. In C. A. Pietz & C. A. Mattson (Eds.), Violent offenders: Understanding and assessment. New York, NY: Oxford.

Zapf, P. A., Golding, S. L., Roesch, R., & Pirelli, G. (2014). Assessing criminal responsibility. In I. B. Weiner & R. K. Otto (Eds.), The handbook of forensic psychology (4th ed.). New York: Wiley.

Zapf, P. A., Roesch, R., & Pirelli, G. (2014). Assessing competency to stand trial. In I. B. Weiner & R. K. Otto (Eds.), The handbook of forensic psychology (4th ed.). New York: Wiley.

Zapf, P. A., & Pirelli, G. (2013). Research methods with violent offenders. In C. A. Pietz & C. A. Mattson (Eds.), Violent offenders: Understanding and assessment. New York, NY: Oxford.

Zapf, P. A., Gagnon, N. C., Cox, D. N., & Roesch, R. (2012). Psychological perspectives on criminality. In R. Linden (Ed.), Criminology: A Canadian perspective (7th ed., pp. 284-322). Toronto, ON: Nelson Thompson Learning.

Zapf, P. A., & Grisso, T. (2012). Use and misuse of forensic assessment instruments. In D. Faust (Ed.), Coping with psychiatric and psychological testimony (6th ed.; pp. 488-508). New York, NY: Oxford.

Zapf, P. A., & Pirelli, G. (2012). Forensic report writing and testimony in capacity evaluations. In G. J. Demakis (Ed.), Civil capacities in clinical neuropsychology: Research findings and practical applications (pp. 242-263). New York, NY: Oxford.

Zapf, P. A., Green, D., & Rosenfeld, B. (2011). Competency to stand trial and criminal responsibility research. In B. Rosenfeld & S. D. Penrod (Eds.), Research methods in forensic psychology (pp. 156-173). New York: Wiley.

Poythress, N. G., & Zapf, P. A. (2009). Controversies in evaluating competency to stand trial. In J. L. Skeem, K. S. Douglas, & S. O. Lilienfeld (Eds.), Psychological science in the courtroom: Consensus and controversy (pp.309-329). New York, NY: Guilford.

Zapf, P. A., Zottoli, T., & Pirelli, G. (2009). Insanity in the courtroom: Issues of criminal responsibility and competency to stand trial. In J. D. Lieberman & D. A. Krauss (Eds.), Psychology in the courtroom, Vol. II (pp. 79-101). Aldershot, U.K.: Ashgate.

Zapf, P. A., Gagnon, N. C., Cox, D. N., & Roesch, R. (2009). Psychological perspectives on criminality. In R. Linden (Ed.), Criminology: A Canadian perspective (6th ed., pp. 247-281). Toronto, ON: Nelson Thompson Learning.

Zapf, P. A. (2008). Competency for execution. In R. Jackson (Ed.), Learning forensic assessment (pp. 239-261). Mahwah, NJ: Lawrence Erlbaum.

McLearen, A. M., & Zapf, P. A. (2007). The death penalty: A brief review of historical roots and current practices relevant to the mental health practitioner (pp. 295-319). In R. K. Ax & T. J. Fagan (Eds.), Corrections, mental health, and social policy. Springfield, IL: Charles C. Thomas.

Litwack, T., Zapf, P. A., Groscup, J. L., & Hart, S. D. (2006). Violence risk assessment: Research, legal, and clinical considerations. In I. B. Weiner & A. K. Hess (Eds.), Handbook of forensic psychology (3rd ed., pp. 487-533). New York: Wiley.

Zapf, P. A., Golding, S. L., & Roesch, R. (2006). Criminal responsibility and the insanity defense. In I. B. Weiner & A. K. Hess (Eds.), Handbook of forensic psychology (3rd ed., pp. 332-363). New York: Wiley.

Zapf, P. A., & Roesch, R. (2006). Competency to stand trial: A guide for evaluators. In I. B. Weiner & A. K. Hess (Eds.), Handbook of forensic psychology (3rd ed., pp. 305-331). New York: Wiley.

Zapf, P. A., Cox, D. N., & Roesch, R. (2004). Psychological perspectives on criminality. In R. Linden (Ed.), Criminology: A Canadian perspective (5th ed., pp. 260-291). Toronto, ON: Nelson Thompson Learning.

Zapf, P. A., Viljoen, J. L., Whittemore, K. E., Poythress, N. G., & Roesch, R. (2002). Competency: Past, present, and future. In J. R. P. Ogloff (ed.), Taking psychology and law into the twenty first century (pp. 171-198). Kluwer Academic/Plenum Publishers.

Nicholls, T. L., Hemphill, J. F., Boer, D. P., Kropp, P. R., & Zapf, P. A. (2001). The assessment and treatment of offenders and inmates: Specific populations. In R. Schuller & J. R. P. Ogloff (Eds.), An introduction to law and psychology: Canadian perspectives (pp. 248-282). Toronto, ON: University of Toronto Press.

Zapf, P. A., & Roesch, R. (2001). A comparison of American and Canadian conceptualizations of competence to stand trial. In R. Roesch, R. R. Corrado, & R. J. Dempster (Eds.), Psychology in the courts: International advances in knowledge (pp. 121-132). London: Routledge.

Cox, D. N., Roesch, R., & Zapf, P. A. (2000). Psychological perspectives on criminality. In R. Linden (Ed.), Criminology: A Canadian perspective (pp. 238-269) (4th ed.). Toronto, ON: Harcourt Brace.

Roesch, R., & Zapf, P. A. (2000). Competency issues in civil and criminal law: A comparison of competency measures. In A. Czerederecka, T. Jaskiewicz, & J. Wojcikiewicz (Eds.), Forensic psychology and law: Traditional questions and new ideas (pp. 34-40). Krakow, Poland: Institute of Forensic Research Publishers.

Golding, S. L., Skeem, J. L., Roesch, R., & Zapf, P. A. (1999). The assessment of criminal responsibility: A historical approach to a current controversy. In I. B. Weiner & A. K. Hess (Eds.), Handbook of forensic psychology (2nd ed., pp. 379-408). New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Roesch, R., Zapf, P. A., Golding, S. L., & Skeem, J. (1999). Defining and assessing competency to stand trial. In I. B. Weiner & A. K. Hess (Eds.), Handbook of forensic psychology (2nd ed., pp. 327-349). New York: John Wiley and Sons.

Roesch, R., Ogloff, J. R. P., Zapf, P. A., Hart, S. D., & Otto, R. (1998). Jail and prison inmates. In A. S. Bellack and M. Hersen (Series Eds.) and N. N. Singh (Vol. Ed.), Comprehensive clinical psychology: Vol. 9. Application in diverse populations. New York: Elsevier.

Cox, D. N., Roesch, R., & Zapf, P. A. (1996). Psychological perspectives on criminality. In R. Linden (Ed.), Criminology: A Canadian perspective (3rd ed.). Toronto, ON: Harcourt Brace.

About Dr. Zapf

Patricia A. Zapf, PhD is a forensic and clinical psychologist specializing in criminal forensic psychological evaluation, consultation, and expert testimony. Read more…

Education & Professional Experience

Dr. Zapf is licensed as a psychologist in Alabama, Florida, New York and Missouri. Although her offices are located in the greater Tampa area, she provides consultation, forensic evaluation, and expert testimony across the United States. Read more…